New generation, new education | life in Kashmir

The new 2020 education policy aims to revolutionize the educational system and to teach the new generation the basics sought by the advanced market, reports Mariah Shah

In a serious effort to fill the gap between the classroom and the marketplace, the new Education Policy 2020 supports the change that recent industrial revolutions have wrought and advanced western education systems. Students seeking training under NEP-2020 should be better able to understand their ecosystem than previous generations.

Framed in 1986, the National Education Policy was modified for the first time in 1992. Its metamorphosis into NEP-2020 is rudimentary. The aim is to reduce the content and include learning methods, critical thinking and problem solving, in addition to helping the student to innovate, adapt and adopt new materials. Aiming for a major change in 2040, the implementation of NEP-2020 changes the way education is delivered and acquired.

The new setup

The policy changed the basic pedagogical and curricular structure of 10+2 in school education. For the 3-18 age group, it has been reframed into 5+3+3+4.

Compared to the previous academic structure in which students begin receiving education for the first standard at age six, the new structure provides early childhood care and education (ECCE) through Anganwadipreschool and Balvatika for the age group 3-6 years. The policy ensures that students joining Grade 1 after completing their ECCE educational institutions should be ready for school by fall 2030.

The new National Curriculum and Instructional Framework for Early Childhood Care and Education (NCPFECCE) for children up to the age group of eight years will be developed by the National Council for Educational Research and Training ( NCERT).

Now, basic education consists of two stages – three years of pre-school beginning at age 3 and ending at age six, and two years of class I and class II for the age group 6-8 years old.

The preparatory and the middle consist of 3+3 years of schooling. Three years of preparatory school begin at age 8 and end at age 11. Three years of middle school begin at age 11 and last until age 14.

Secondary education now lasts four years, from the ninth to the twelfth grade. Pupils enter the ninth class at the age of 15 and leave school after the twelfth class at the age of 18.

This is precisely what the 5+3+3+4 model means.

Reduce dropout rates

The gross enrollment rate (GER) from grades 6 to 8 was 90.9%; for 9 to 10, 79.3% and for 11 to 12, it was 56.5%. This indicates that a significant proportion of students drop out after fifth grade and especially after eighth grade.

Going forward, efforts will be made to ensure universal access for all children to quality education including vocational training from basic schooling to twelfth grade.

Priority will be given to the return of children to schools to avoid dropping out. The political objective is to achieve a gross enrollment rate of 100% from preschool to secondary school by 2030.

At the same time, open and distance learning (ODL) programs offered by the National Institute of Open Education (NIOS) and state open schools will be expanded to meet the learning needs of young people in India who cannot attend a physical school. .

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The new curriculum is committed to reducing the burden of book content to the most required content in each subject. Instead of developing content, the policy states that critical thinking, discovery, research, and discussion should be developed.

Prescribed content will emphasize key concepts, ideas, applications and problem solving. The teaching-learning process will be conducted interactively; questions will be encouraged and classroom sessions will contain fun, creative, collaborative and exploratory activities for students for experiential learning.

At all stages of learning, students will have access to hands-on learning, integrated arts and sports education, and story-based pedagogy. Sport-integrated learning will also be undertaken in classrooms to help students achieve physical fitness and related life skills.

Multilingual approach

The NEP strongly advocates the use of home language/mother tongue/local language or regional language as the medium of instruction up to grade five with preference up to grade eight. . Thus, the mother tongue would be a priority in private and public schools.

Textbooks including science will be made available in the mother tongue. In cases where school materials are not available, the language of the transaction between teachers and students will be the mother tongue.

Higher Education

The NEP aims to promote quality higher education. There will be multidisciplinary colleges and universities (at least one in each district) and more institutions of higher learning (HEIs) offering programs in local languages.

The National Research Foundation (NRF) will be established to fund outstanding peer-reviewed research and inspire research in universities and colleges. From now on, “reputable university”, “affiliated university”, “affiliated technical university”, “unitary university” will become “university”.

Henceforth, an autonomous degree-granting college (CA) will refer to a large multidisciplinary institution of higher education that grants undergraduate degrees.

All HEIs by 2040 will aim to become multidisciplinary institutions and enroll more students for optimal use of infrastructure and resources, and for the creation of vibrant multidisciplinary communities. By 2030, more higher education institutions will be established in poor areas, so that each district will have a large multidisciplinary higher education institution. The objective of this policy is to increase the gross enrollment rate in higher education, including vocational education, from 26.3% (2018) to 50% by 2035.

Degree programs

Now, the structure of degree programs at the undergraduate level will be three or four years in duration with multiple exit options during this period. Students leaving the course will receive appropriate certifications. A certificate will be awarded to students after completing the first year in any discipline or field (including professional and vocational fields), a diploma after two years of study or a bachelor’s degree after three years.

An Academic Credit Bank (ABC) will be created to store credits obtained digitally by students from various recognized HEIs. Degrees from an HEI can then be awarded based on credits earned.

The four-year program can extend to a “Degree with Research” provided students complete a meticulous research project in their major field(s) of study, as specified by the HEI. The master’s programs will be flexible in nature and will dedicate the second year of the two-year master’s program to research. The option is available for graduate students.

Students who complete a 4-year bachelor’s program (with research) will be offered a one-year master’s program option. In another option, students can opt for an integrated Bachelor/Master program in 5 years. However, a doctorate requires either a master’s degree or a 4-year research bachelor’s degree. There is no MPhil under NEP. It offers students the opportunity to opt directly for the doctorate after graduation.

= “The most indispensable feature of NEP 2020 is that the policy endorses choice in the academic field; for the very first time, in fact,” said Danish Zahoor, a resource person at Srinagar DIET. “Students will be able to choose subjects in all disciplines. No student will be tied to the current program structure. In the meantime, the research introduced at the graduation level is an asset to the education system. Students who wish to pursue further their subject will now have an option. It makes sense and is quick. The academic structure discussed in the policy is economic.

Finance research

The National Research Founder (NRF) will competitively fund research in all university disciplines. Department of Science and Technology (DST), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Department of Bio-Technology (DBT), Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR), Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Indian Council of Historical Research ( ICHR), and the University Grants Commission (UGC), as well as various private and philanthropic organizations, will be permitted to fund applicants independently. The NRF will be governed by the government itself.

Teacher training

By 2030, HEIs will offer an integrated 4-year BEd – Bachelor of Education, which will become the minimum qualification for teachers in schools. HEIs can also organize a 2-year BEd program for students who have already obtained a bachelor’s degree in a specialized subject. They will offer a one-year BEd program for students who have completed a 4-year undergraduate degree in a specialized subject. Deserving students can draw scholarships to pursue these programs.

“The biggest challenge in implementing the policy is the lack of human resources and infrastructure,” Danish commented. “However, politics motivates teacher training which leads to the selection of the right candidates for teaching purposes.”

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